# Dj arbitrage betting

**FULLERS FOUR PILLARS OF INVESTING**

Players typically tee off in threesomes in the opening two rounds of a tournament, and twosomes in the latter two rounds. Some books allow for betting on a tie as well, while others void the bet in that instance. Bets can also be voided or impacted should one player in the grouping not tee off, or withdraw before the round is complete. Who to Choose? Which players to choose for a two-ball or three-ball bet?

Also, which round are you betting on? Early rounds allow more room for underdogs to rise up, where final rounds carry a degree of pressure that not every player has faced before. Research and Strategy Breaking the immense field down into more digestible pieces helps a bettor make a clearer assessment of each grouping, and better manage risk. Achieving regular returns in the two-ball or three-ball markets takes research and practice, and savvy golf bettors go in with a strategy of how they want their wagers to be placed.

Some make carefully selected bets, limiting their risk to just those players in a few groups. Others spread their bets across several different pairings, with the aim of covering themselves against potential ties. Hence, investigating the efficiency of the Super Rugby betting market should yield interesting results. The remainder of the paper is laid out as follows. The next section discusses the methodology and framework used in this paper.

An investigation for empirical evidence to support the claim of inefficiency in the Super Rugby betting market is presented in the third section. The fourth section focuses on the implementation of a practical betting strategy, and we show through empirical analysis that arbitrage opportunities are indeed exploitable in the Super Rugby betting market.

Methodology and Theoretical Framework Arbitrage Definitions and Mathematical Framework Arbitrage trades in the financial market exist due to market inefficiencies, and generally involves the buying and selling of assets to make a riskless profit, based on the difference in prices. Within sports betting, however, bets cannot be sold unless dealing with a Betting Exchange, such as Betfair, where it is possible to back or lay a bet , and therefore betting only has two types of arbitrage strategies.

The first type of arbitrage trade is based on differing handicaps quoted over numerous bookmakers with the same or very similar odds. The second type, which this paper focuses on, is odds arbitrage. In both strategies, more than one bookmaker must be involved in order to benefit from price discrepancies between the bookmakers. In an odds arbitrage trade, the punter takes what is known as a combined bet, placing money on all outcomes of the event, by choosing the maximum odds per outcome over all the bookmakers.

An arbitrage trade therefore exists if the mispricing is such that the amount won on any outcome will cover the loss of the stake on all the remaining outcomes. Mathematically, Vlastakis et al. If the odds were set based on the true probabilities i.

Hence, in order to allow for an expected gain for the bookmaker, the odds are smaller than the fair odds, and thus, the implied probabilities are larger than the true probabilities. This results in the expected implied margin being calculated as [mathematical expression not reproducible] 1 where is the implied probability of the ith outcome.

In our context of Super Rugby betting, the three possible outcomes for a punter to place bets on a home win, draw, or away win. Hence, Equation 1 implies that should the punter place bets on all outcomes, with one bookmaker, there would be a certain loss equal to that bookmakers' margin or over-round.

If the punter selects the maximum odds for each outcome over J bookmakers, then there may be an opportunity for arbitrage, should the margin on the synthesized book be negative [mathematical expression not reproducible] 2 where J is the set of all bookmakers' quoted odds and [d. Should Equation 2 hold then the arbitrage profit is equal to -[?? Empirical Evidence Data The investigation conducted in this paper makes use of the closing odds from multiple bookmakers spanning the to Super Rugby seasons.

A total of games are analyzed over the four years. It is worth mentioning that the format of the Super Rugby competition changed after the season, with more teams being introduced and the structure of the tournament altered. Consequently, for the and seasons there were 94 games in each season, and then it increased to games per season during and Odds were obtained from two South African local bookmakers, Mbet and Marshalls World of Sport, with the remaining data for odds offered globally extracted from Oddsportal.

Hence, our data covers odds offered from bookmakers both locally in South Africa and internationally, with the majority from Europe. In addition, it is also expected that any results that suggest inefficiency could in fact be understated. Since the investigations in this paper are based on closing odds i. Closing Odd Investigations Similar methodologies to those utilized by Vlastakis et al.

In essence, this investigation measures the frequency and size of arbitrage opportunities embedded within Super Rugby betting. This is done in order to establish whether said mispricing exists, and determine if the market is indeed weak form inefficient. More precisely, if the market is efficient, it is not possible for the punter to systematically generate abnormal returns different to the margin. In the section that follows we will further investigate whether these arbitrage opportunities are practically exploitable.

The data supplied by Oddsportal. During the season, on average This steadily increases over the seasons with 39, 8 bookmakers quoting on average during the season See Table 1. The highest odds offered on each outcome of the game were considered over all the bookmakers quoting for each match. Using the definition of arbitrage explained in the preceding section, the games either had an arbitrage opportunity or not. Table 1 illustrates that an arbitrage opportunity exists nearly one in every three trades.

This strongly suggests that the Super Rugby betting market is in fact weak form inefficient. We conduct a formal hypothesis test to examine whether the average arbitrage profits are indeed significantly greater from zero i. The resulting t-statistics and the corresponding p-values for each season under evaluation are presented in Table 2. Interestingly, the total number of arbitrage opportunities does not appear to be directly proportional to the number of quoting bookmakers. A direct correlation would be expected when there are few bookmakers, however, it appears that this effect becomes negligible when a large number of bookmakers are considered.

The lack of correlation between the number of arbitrage opportunities and the average number of bookmakers, as shown in our findings, also gives rise to the possibility that majority of mispricing comes from a subset of bookmakers. Hence, we analyse the amount of involvement of each individual bookmaker in the various European arbitrage opportunities discovered.

Table 3 presents the amount of arbitrage opportunities offered by each bookmaker as a percentage of the total number of European opportunities discovered per season we omit any bookmakers that did not offer arbitrage opportunities in the periods investigated.

Interestingly, while the majority of arbitrage opportunities tend to involve only a small subset of bookmakers in the early and seasons, the spread becomes more diversified in the and seasons. Utilizing equations 1 to 3 , we analyze each arbitrage opportunity and the possible profits for the punter and present our findings in Table 4.

It can be seen that, by taking combined bets over multiple bookmakers as discussed previously , the average over-round is very close to zero see Table 4. Therefore, it only takes a bookmaker with slightly different odds, for whatever reason, to create a situation where the over-round becomes negative, and an arbitrage opportunity is created.

Surprisingly, our results also seem contradictory to the findings of Vlastakis et al. Although Vlastakis et al. In contrast, our results show that more arbitrage opportunities are realized in the Super Rugby betting market, albeit the majority of these arbitrage opportunities exhibited lower returns, with the average just below two percent return on closing odds. However, it is worthwhile to highlight that the maximum arbitrage return found over the four seasons investigated was Notably, bookmakers will start to quote odds several days before the matches.

Hence, such returns may be over a couple days or, since these are the closing odds, it could in fact be merely over a few hours. From Table 1, we can also observe the significance of the area factor in creating an arbitrage. As Burkey suggests, each bookmaker is exposed to varied market forces. Different areas will offer majority support towards different teams, meaning if bookmakers choose to balance their book it may cause arbitrage opportunities to occur.

The results from our investigation confirm such a claim. During most years there are more arbitrage opportunities arising from cross betting over continents than there are from betting within the continent. Since Australia and New Zealand have teams competing in the Super Rugby tournament, fans may force bookmakers within their respective countries to alter odds. This gives rise to the suspicion that if arbitrage traders were to also set up additional accounts in either Australia or New Zealand, in order to exploit quoted odds from locally based bookmakers, more opportunities may bediscovered.

In addition to the standard deviation of the returns per season reported in Table 3, we present the quartiles through abox whistar plot m Figurel to analyse the distribution of the arbitrage returns. Apart from the higher mean and greater dispersion, we also observe more extreme arbitrage re turns during the season in comparison toprior years.

Figure 2 presents the box whisker plot to inrestigate the difference in returns between the different regions i. Our results also suggest that a number of high-return opportunities emerged from cross-continent arbitiage. Interestingly, the returns in the upper quartile resulted from opportunities involving the majoriry of bookmakers listed in Table 3. Finally, we test the hnpothesis that: the average returns between the two regions are different.

We obtained a resulting p-value of 0. Implementation of Practical Arbitrage Strategy The Empirical Evidence section looked at Super Rugby games spanning over four years and determined the total number of arbitrage opportunities available. The significant number of arbitrage trades, together with the significant results of our hypothesis testing, strongly suggests that the market is indeed weak form inefficient.

In this section, we provide an empirical experiment by implementing a straightforward arbitrage strategy to demonstrate the possibility of exploiting the arbitrage opportunities in a practical trading environment. As discussed previously, if the market is indeed efficient, then such a strategy should not exist. We demonstrate how the arbitrage opportunities may be exploited under both "perfect world" and "real world" scenarios.

The former describes a framework whereby there are no transactional costs and no risk of a trade not being completed. It is noteworthy that these assumptions are not too far from reality especially for the latter. Although, the biggest assumption made under such a perfect environment is that the accounts can be rebalanced after every trade. This allows a trader to enter every arbitrage trade that becomes available.

Assumptions in the latter scenario are believed to be closest to or includes at least all actual market characteristics. In particular, we allow for a withdrawal charge of one percent and that the rebalancing of accounts only occurs after every second game.

By overstating the conditions, the "replworld" scenario we propose here will encompass at least that of the resl trading environment. For example, the condition of punters having to rebalance each trading account due to limited capital already encompasses the big players in the market that are without such limitations.

In addition, the probability of not securing a bet is derived from an overcompensation of the time duration required to place a bet online. Further conditions and assumptions for our practical trading experiment under the two different scenarios are as follows. The previous study made use of over 30 bookmakers on average per game.

In this model the reasonable assumption that an individual could only manage five accounts has been implemented. These five accounts were chosen in order to fulfill a few requirements, which were believed to maximize the likelihood of arbitrage occurrences.

The first requirement was that the accounts span several geographical regions. As explained in the Empirical Evidence section, this is done in order to ensure that the bookmakers are exposed to varied market forces. This requirement was restricted further to the condition that there is no restriction of opening an account with any of the bookmakers. Secondly, the accounts were chosen under the subjective requirement that they are large and well-known.

The larger bookmakers generally offer the most competitive odds with the smallest over-round. Finally, the last requirement is that the history of odds from each bookmaker is available for all four seasons under review. The odds for Sportingbet were not available for all four seasons. Therefore, it is assumed that on March 25, that the Sportingbet account is closed and reopened with StanJames.

Withdrawal Charge. It is worth mentioning that in South Africa taxes are exempt on sports betting and the majority of bookmakers do not charge any administration fees applicable for both Marshalls and Mbet. Hence, all the bookmakers chosen for this model do not charge any administration costs, besides Betfred who may charge a two percent withdrawal charge, depending on method of payment.

Hence, this assumption is included for all bookmakers in order to over-estimate any expenses that could be incurred e. The withdrawal charge is assumed to be a percentage of the amount withdrawn from each account when rebalancing. Rebalancing of Accounts. The adjustable assumption here is the number of trades that are made before rebalancing the accounts. When an arbitrage trade is made, this generally entails one account winning a bet, and either one or two other accounts losing. In most cases this results in some accounts emptying, as the maximum amount would have been gambled, in order to benefit fully from the risk-free return.

Should another arbitrage trade become available before the accounts have been rebalanced there may not be enough funds in an account to benefit from such trade. In many cases, several games happen per day and therefore it would be unrealistic to assume that rebalancing of accounts is possible after every game. Notably, such a restriction is not applicable for large players in the market who are not subject to such capital limits.

Securing a Bet. When an arbitrage trade is discovered, a punt needs to be placed on every possible outcome. In our practical experiment it involves placing a bet on the home win, draw, and away win. If the odds were to be altered after placing an initial bet, but before completing all three bets, then the trade could become a risky gamble.

However, with modern internet gambling and the infrequency of bookmakers altering pre-match fixed odds, the likelihood of this occurring is almost negligible. If the odds were to change, such that an under-round was no longer offered, the trader could choose to either still complete the trade, ensuring a small but manageable loss, or cease further action and therefore accept the gamble.

Our practical experiment assumes the latter course of action. In order to calculate the probability of not securing the arbitrage trade, the probability of not securing each of the three individual trades in the combined bet is first calculated.

To calculate an approximate probability, Marshalls Super Rugby odds are assessed. Referring to Table 5 below, it can be seen that that if the time required to place a single punt is grossly over-estimated at three minutes, then the estimated probability of not securing that punt is 0.

In practice, however, the time required to place a single punt for an experienced punter would only require a few seconds. It is worth mentioning that the advancement of super computers increases the possibility of traders handling large number of accounts. In addition, with the advent of algorithmic trading, the efficiency of trades has also improved significantly.

These conditions allow traders to minimize the probability of not securing a bet and benefit from more possible arbitrage opportunities. Choosing an Amount to Bet. When an arbitrage is discovered three punts are made leading to the same profit being realized regardless of the outcome.

The stake on the [i. The model determines the stakes by increasing the total amount of bet, B, until it becomes unaffordable for an existing account i. Practical Trading Results Notably, with the overstated assumption on number of account restrictions, we can expect less arbitrage opportunities. It is worth noting that under such assumptions, any arbitrage profits may be understated, as punters may easily open more accounts with the advancement of technology and the improved efficiency of the internet.

Referring to Table 6, it can be seen that This is a significant decrease from the It should be emphasised that identical periods were examined under both investigations, and therefore the reason for the dissimilarity is due to the limited number of bookmakers being considered overly reduced to only five in this experiment for robustness.

Relaxing this rigorous assumption will result in more arbitrage trades being available. Our experiment results show that arbitrage returns are over and above the loss made on the long-term over-round, signifying abnormal profits and suggesting market inefficiency. Moreover, it can also be seen that the arbitrage returns converted into effective annual for ease of comparison even outperform the benchmark risk-free rate LIBOR over the same time horizon. Such comparison with a risk-free investment in the financial market further emphasizes the significant arbitrage opportunities available in the betting market.

Our results of the two scenarios tested are presented in Tables 7 and 8 below. Perfect World. When we consider the setting whereby i no transactional costs involved; ii there is no risk that the trade will not be completed; and iii betting accounts could be rebalanced immediately after each trade, the trader would experience returns as stated in Table 7. When returns are converted to effective annual rates to be compared to the benchmark risk-free rate LIBOR it is clear that very high relative returns are achieved.

The relatively lower effective annual return earned over the total period of the investigation is due to the consideration of inactive periods between seasons, whereby no trading could take place. Our results clearly show that arbitrage opportunities are in fact exploitable in the Super Rugby betting market under a perfect environment.

However, the assumptions are not true representations of the real world, and therefore, in the sequel, results under more realistic assumptions are observed and analyzed. Real World. When considering more realistic assumptions, including the overstating of certain conditions to account for limiting cases, the return that would have been earned by the trader is presented in Table 8.

These returns, albeit slightly lower as expected than those achieved under a perfect environment see Table 7 , are still considered to be significantly higher than the benchmark risk-free rate. Nevertheless, our results clearly indicate that arbitrage opportunities are indeed exploitable in a "real world" setting.

It is also worth mentioning that the arbitrage trading strategy greatly outperforms an asset with comparable risk in the financial market. Over the course of the investigation, the average return on an arbitrage trade was 1.

It is important to emphasize that such returns can be made over just a few days, or even just over a few hours, due to closing odds data being used. Such a result suggests that an astonishingly high effective rate of arbitrage returns is exploitable in the Super Rugby betting market. Moreover, while the arbitrage returns are lower than those discovered in the football betting market on average see Vlastakis et al. The slight decrease in return compared to the perfect environment is due to the relaxing of rigorous assumptions.

Firstly, every time the accounts are rebalanced, a withdrawal expense is charged, leading to lesser profits.

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FAQs Is arbitrage betting illegal? Although arbing is not illegal per se, it is viewed very negatively by bookmakers and can often result in bets being cancelled should it be detected. This can have a knock-on effect if a bet on outcome A is cancelled with bookie A, but outcome B is not cancelled with bookie B, meaning that you could be seriously out of pocket considering the large stakes at play. Will my account be suspended for arbing? It not uncommon for betting accounts to be suspended if people are suspected of using surebets.

Therefore, heed a word of caution when approaching arbitrage betting despite the promised guaranteed profit on offer. How can I find free arb bets? Although Oddschecker no longer publishes the value of the total best odds quoted on any sports event, this feature has been replaced by something even better. You can now access a detailed page for a specific sporting event and view all potential arb betting opportunities in ascending order of value.

What is the best arbitrage betting software? Many companies have developed sophisticated arbitrage software programs that analyse the odds provided by dozens of bookmakers for different events. Some of the most popular subscription services include RebelBetting and OddsMonkey.

Try a few to find the right arbitrage bet finder for you. Because odds vary between bookmakers, you can exploit that discrepancy and create a valuable betting opportunity. Online betting sites may accept a large bet on one side of the market, and may offer reduced odds on the other side to balance their risk. You can exploit this and secure betting profits by betting on both outcomes. It takes experience and industry knowledge to know how to seek out and exploit opportunities with arbitrage betting.

So, the lure of the guaranteed win is hard to resist and it an effective betting strategy. Our arbitrage betting calculator helps you determine the potential profits and the stakes to place.